Introduction to the Old Testament IV

The main objective of this course is to provide a detailed description of the content of the text of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, of the history of the literature and of the isagogics of ancient Israel. This objective will be achieved through the employment of the various books of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible as primary sources and extra-biblical texts as secondary sources. While the course takes a historical and archaeological approach as regards to the accounts and literature of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, much time will be allocated for questions and facts of theological, ethical and sociological nature. The goal is also to facilitate engagement with the methods and/or approaches and furthermore with the results of modern biblical scholarship.

The specific objective of this course is to introduce the student to the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible by means of its historical, literary and religious context. Topics to be tackled include the prophetic books of the exilic and post-exilic periods, as well as the apocalyptic literature. The course homes in on the interpretative enterprise en ensemble, on the authors/editors/redactors/compilers and historical background of the individual books of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible and its wider cultural milieu in the ancient Near East. Theological facets of these ancient works are also explored, shifting from the theoretical issues to the more practical matters of daily life and experience. This course does presume medium level competence in terms of the content of the Hungarian text of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible on the part of the student. Therefore, the student with previous knowledge of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible will experience this course to be advantageous but those who lack such an acquaintance will not be at disadvantage.

Competences

Specific competences

By means of this course, the student will acquire a solid working knowledge of the literature, history and religion of ancient Israel. The student will learn to employ the various books of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible as primary sources and extra-biblical texts as secondary sources. While the course takes a historical and archaeological approach as regards to the accounts and literature of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, the student will also learn to interact with questions and facts of theological, ethical and sociological nature. The student will also learn how to engage with the methods and/or approaches and furthermore with the results of modern biblical scholarship. More specifically the student will:
  • acquire exposure to the history and literature of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible and also to the recent archaeological developments that intersect with Ancient Israel and Judah;
  • be educated at a basic level in the critical analysis of different literary forms and genres;
  • accumulate significant knowledge with respect to the theories regarding the genesis and development of the Torah;
  • earn basic familiarity with those extra-biblical texts, which illuminate the literary form of the Torah;
  • be acquainted with the most important issues of the historiography of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible.

General competences

By means of this course, the student will be able to utilize the various interpretational and hermeneutical methods and/or approaches presented in other fields of humanities, such as classical literature etc. Through the interaction with the results of the various archaeological data pertaining to the accounts and literature of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, the student will be able to make connections with the current geography and history of the Middle-East. The student’s knowledge and comprehension of current political issues regarding the Middle-East will also be enhanced. The student’s ability to work in a team will also be improved, as his/her oral or writing skills, respect and also development of professional thinking and ethics, usage of computers and the proficiency to solve questions pertaining to the interpretation of ancient texts. The student will also gain some expertise in recognizing and respecting cultural and ethnic diversity present in the relevant ancient texts. The student will be encouraged to be imaginative in terms of his/her theological thinking and future homiletical practice, whereby nurturing a constant openness towards the possibility of new discoveries in this field of study.

Course structure

  1. The Historical Period between the Late Bronze Age (1550/1500-1200 BC) and the Rise of the Arameans (950-800 BC).

    The lecture endeavours to explore the historical periods of the Late Bronze Age (1550/1500-1200 BC), Iron Age (1200-1000 BC), the Davidic Dynasty and Empire (1000-900 BC) and the rise of the Arameans (950-800 BC).

    Reading:

    • Maxwell Miller, J., Hayes, John H.: Az ókori Izrael és Júda története
    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 587-590 (4)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 25-60 (36) 79-204 (126)
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 14-25 (12)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 632-687 (56)
    • Harrison, Roland Kenneth: Introduction to the Old Testament, 177-192 (16)
  2. The Historical Period between the First Assyrian Threat and the Neo-Babylonian Empire (600-550 BC). Epigraphic Light on the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible

    The lecture seeks to shed light on five major periods of ancient near eastern and Israelite history, spanning from the so-called First Assyrian Threat (850-750 BC), to the resurgence of Israel (850-750 BC), through the time of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (745-630 BC) and the transition period for the various empires (650-600 BC) until the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (600-550 BC). The second half of the lecture enumerates and presents the inscriptional evidence in connection with the texts and larger framework of the world of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 617-618 (2)
    • Maxwell Miller, J., Hayes, John H.: Az ókori Izrael és Júda története
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 205-236 (32)
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 14-25 (12) 34-37 (4)
  3. Prophets, Prophecy and the Significance of the Books of the Former Prophets in the Presentation of the Development of Israelite Prophecy. The Prophets of the Eighth Century. The Prophetic Books of Amos and Hosea

    The lecture commences with the definition of the nature of prophecy, which incorporates the following: the clarification of terminology pertaining to ancient Israelite prophets and prophecy, the founding fathers of Israelite prophecy, the characteristic of the prophet, the chronology of the prophets, the ways of passing down prophecy, the pre-classical and classical prophets, the message of the prophet, prediction and fulfilment. The historical setting of Israelite prophecy also receives treatment, whereby the phenomenon of prophecy in the ancient Near East is examined as regards to its Israelite counterpart. Further topics to be discussed include: prophecy and wisdom, prophets and psalms, rhetoric and speech-acts, canon and biblical theology.
    The second part of the lecture presents the books of Amos and Hosea. The presentation of these two books follows the same format, as far as the outline of the isagogical matters are concerned.
    The book of Amos displays the following theological themes: justice and righteousness, and the good of God’s people, justice and creation, the universal God, the election of Israel, reading Joel before Amos, the book of the Twelve as one book.
    The theological themes tackled from the book of Hosea are: the exclusivity of God, faithfulness and steadfast love, God’s dilemma of judgment and love.
    Further topics and questions to be discussed include: Deuteronomy and Hosea, kinds of writing in Hosea, the house of Jehu, Hosea’s marriage, the third day, Hosea on kings, idolatry, the disenchantment of the world, holiness and love, metaphors and similes, intrabiblical quotations, prophetic words in new contexts, why does God judge the nations, debt-slavery and what do names tell about the prophets.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 355-360 (6) 381-386 (6) 386-390 (5)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 388-392 (5) 392-399 (8)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe, 221-271 (51)
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 174-194 (21) 195-201 (7) 202-209 (8)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 371-381 (11) 472-478 (7) 484-493 (10)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 102-108 (7) 517-528 (12) 533-542 (10)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 243-253 (11) 254-269 (16)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 324-335 (12) 343-352 (10)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 19-81 (63)
  4. The Prophetic Book of Micah. The Prophetic Book of Isaiah I.: Chapters 1-39

    The first part of the lecture concentrates upon the book of the prophet Micah by exploring the personality and faith of the prophet, the role of God in the book and various introductory matters related to it.
    The theological themes include: judgment and salvation, exodus and covenant traditions, prophetic ethics and the nations. Further topics discussed regarding the book of Micah include: prophetic tradition and how oracles got into books, prophetic sayings and their backgrounds, shepherd-Messiah and the covenant accusation.
    The second part of the lecture pays close attention to the first thirty-nine chapters of the book of Isaiah, which are considered to be a result of the authorship of Isaiah of Jerusalem. General matters are also addressed, such as authorship, date, destination, structure, outline and themes of the book. The critical interpretation of Isaiah is also presented, on the lines of the following ideas: identifying Isaiah of Jerusalem, the message of Isaiah of Jerusalem, the composition of Isa 1-39 and 40-66 and reading Isaiah as a unity. Further topics and questions to be discussed include: is prophecy predictive, the song of the vineyard as poetry, life after death in the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible and Isa 35 as centrepiece.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 390-393 (4) 395-418 (24)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 319-330 (12) 403-406 (4)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe, 287-292 (6) 499-513 (15)
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 210-220 (11) 221-225 (5)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 381-404 (24) 467-472 (6) 503-508 (6)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 407-444 (38) 548-558 (11)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 131-230 (100) 270-275 (6) 276-312 (37)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 243-271 (29) 368-376 (9)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 82-121 (40) 122-134 (13)
  5. The Prophetic Book of Isaiah II: Chapters 40-66

    The lecture attempts to investigate the various theories concerning the multiple and/or single authorship of Isa 40-66. The so-called Servant Songs are also dealt with, alongside with such theological themes, as Zion, city of God, king and Messiah, the Servant and the nations and finally trust in God. Further topics to be discussed include: political planning, prophecies in new settings, Rome, Babylon and the Gospel, prophecy, Jews and Christians. The topic of rhetorical intention in the book of Isaiah as a whole brings the lecture to a closure.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 418-422 (5)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 309-330 (22)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe, 499-513 (15)
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 210-220 (11) 257-270 (14)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 381-404 (24)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 444-466 (23)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 276-312 (37)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 243-271 (29)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 133-134 (2) 233-263 (31) 285-291 (7)
  6. The Prophets of the Seventh Century. The Prophetic Books of Zephaniah, Nahum and Habakkuk

    The lecture begins with an in depth treatment of the introductory matters of the books of Zephaniah, Nahum and Habakkuk. Theological themes in these books also receive a thorough assessment.
    As regards to the prophetic book of Zephaniah the following theological themes may be identified: God’s election of Israel, and his kingship in the world, the election of a remnant, religion and ethics and the day of the Lord. On one hand, the book of Zephaniah raises the issue, whether it is a drama or not, on the other hand the person of the prophet Zephaniah raises the issue whether he may be considered a cult prophet. Further topics to be discussed include: power and weakness, Zephaniah and Jeremiah, humility and poverty.
    Scholars used to depreciate the book of Nahum, since it lacks the ethical themes of the great prophets. Nonetheless, a closer look at the book shows that it does have an ethical ground for prophecy, which emerges in the judgement on Assyria. Its evil is in effect evil plotted against God. The book of Habakkuk perhaps lends itself more readily for an exploration of theological themes and questions; the following may be mentioned: how can a just God tolerate evil and will the righteous live by faithfulness?

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 423-426 (4) 426-428 (3) 428-430 (3)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 407-410 (4) 412-414 (3) 414-417 (4)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe, 293-294 (2) 295-297 (3) 298-299 (2)
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 226-227 (2) 227-229 (3) 229-232 (4)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 509-512 (4) 513-516 (4) 516-520 (5)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 558-562 (5) 562-571 (10) 571-575 (5)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 313-318 (6) 318-322 (5) 322-327 (6)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 377-382 (6) 383-387 (5) 388-394 (7)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 133-140 (8) 141-147 (7) 148-153 (6)
  7. The Prophetic Book of Jeremiah (I): Chapters 1-20

    The lecture begins with various introductory issues, namely, authorship, date and destination, addressees, structure and outline. According to the outline, the first twenty chapters may be divided into three major blocks: God calls Jeremiah to service, Jeremiah narrates Judah’s sad condition and the wrestling of Jeremiah with humans and with God. In terms of the critical interpretation of Jeremiah, the following questions are tackled: prophecy or poetry, Deuteronomistic sermons, a Deuteronomistic edition and is Jeremiah from Jeremiah? Further topics to be discussed include: circumcision of the heart and the Confessions of Jeremiah.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 431-437 (7)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 331-348 (18)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 234-246 (13)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 405-430 (26)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 466-492 (27)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 328-355 (28)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 272-295 (24)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 133-134 (2) 158-198 (41)
  8. The Prophetic Book of Jeremiah (II): Chapters 21-52. The Book of Lamentations

    The lecture commences with the presentation of chapters 21-52, under the headings: Jeremiah challenges rulers and prophets, the Book of Comfort, the failure of the leadership, Jerusalem after the fall, oracles about the nations and Jerusalem’s fall revisited. This is followed by an investigation carried out as regards to the theological themes of the book, which include: sin as falseness, judgment and salvation, the new covenant, the individual and the Messiah. The rhetorical intention of the book is also addressed. Further topics and questions to be discussed include: the divine warrior, how long is seventy years, Israel’s return to its land and free will.
    In terms of Lamentations besides introductory matters, the following theological themes are being discussed: covenant curse and confession of sin, lamentation and bitter suffering, the steadfast love of the Lord, waiting for God and a comforter.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 431-439 (9)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 331-351 (21)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 234-246 (13) 312-314 (3)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 405-430 (26) 430-435 (6)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 466-492 (27) 677-684 (8)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 328-355 (28)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 272-301 (30)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 133-134 (2) 158-198 (41) 413-418 (6)
  9. The Prophets of the Sixth Century. The Prophetic Book of Ezekiel (I): Chapters 1-24

    The lecture commences with a presentation of the oracles and events relating to Ezekiel’s call, the day of the Lord, God’s glory departs and judgment against Jerusalem. The presentation continues with a treatment of the critical interpretation of the book of Ezekiel. Further topics and questions to be discussed include: chronology in Ezekiel, was there an Ezekiel school, God’s presence in the structure of Ezekiel’s book, prophetic symbolic actions, intercession, Jerusalem as female, two political allegories, divine initiative and Ezekiel chapter 20 as rhetoric.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 441-451 (11)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 353-372 (20)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 247-256 (10)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 440-457 (18)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 492-515 (24)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 356-389 (34)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 302-315 (14)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 199-132 (-66)
  10. The Prophetic Book of Ezekiel (II): Chapters 25-48

    The lecture continues the presentation of the remaining chapters of the Book of Ezekiel, by concentrating on the oracles against the nations, the restoration of Israel and Israel’s new Temple. Theological themes are also mentioned: the sovereignty of God and human responsibility, the presence of God, sin, judgment, purification, salvation, that is a radically new beginning, Zion and Eden, and political/formal and spiritual religion, that is Ezekiel as prophet and priest. Further topics and questions to be discussed include: the oracles against nations as rhetoric, on the reinterpretation of prophecies, roles of priests and Levites, is God the author of evil and finally the topic of holiness. The lecture concludes with an exploration of the rhetorical intention of the book of Ezekiel.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 441-451 (11)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 353-372 (20)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 247-256 (10)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 440-457 (18)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 492-515 (24)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 356-389 (34)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 302-315 (14)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 199-132 (-66)
  11. The Prophetic Books of Obadiah, Joel and Jonah

    The lecture deals not only with the isagogical matters concerning the prophetic books of Obadiah, Joel and Jonah but also expands their explanation by pinpointing the major theological themes found in them.
    The underlying theological theme, the judgement of God against all wickedness, retains a special twist in the book of Obadiah, which consists in its close relationship with Israel.
    The theological themes presented from the book of Joel are: the all-powerful God, the day of the Lord, repentance, the metaphor of locusts in Joel, nature and history and the Spirit of God.
    The theological themes of the book of Jonah concentrate upon the following questions: working out the sovereignty of God, worship and thanksgiving, retribution, does God’s forgiveness extend to all and is it possible for God to repent?
    Further topics and questions to be discussed include: the justness of judgment, Obadiah in relation to Amos, Jonah as history, universalism and Judaism and literary techniques.
    Additional literary reading: Babits Mihály, „Jónás könyve,” in Babits Mihály Összegyűjtött Versei (OK; Budapest: Osiris Kiadó, 2007), 447-458; Babits Mihály, „Jónás imája,” in Babits Mihály Összegyűjtött Versei (OK; Budapest: Osiris Kiadó, 2007), 458.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 360-366 (7) 366-370 (5) 370-380 (11)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 386-388 (3) 401-403 (3) 411-414 (4)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe, 358-360 (3) 370-372 (3) 373-377 (5)
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 232-233 (2) 283-286 (4) 286-288 (3)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 479-483 (5) 494-497 (4) 497-503 (7)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 528-533 (6) 542-544 (3) 545-548 (4)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 370-375 (6) 375-380 (6) 381-389 (9)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 336-342 (7) 353-358 (6) 359-367 (9)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 154-157 (4) 305-310 (6) 311-318 (8)
  12. The Medo-Persian Empire (550-450 BC). The Prophets after the Babylonian Exile. The Prophetic Books of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi

    The lecture commences with a survey of the historical period of the Medo-Persian Empire, the rule of which encompasses roughly the lives and work of these three post-exilic prophets. The isagogical matters presented concern all three prophetic books in question. In terms of theological themes, the book of Haggai encapsulates the following: the Temple of Jerusalem and future aid. The book of Zechariah displays two themes, namely salvation and the Messiah. Scholars identified the following theological themes in the book of Malachi: covenant with God, particular covenants, form and spirit in worship and eschatology. Further topics and questions to be discussed include: Zech 1-8 and Chronicles, echoes of the past, Zerubbabel as Messiah, God in the Temple of Jerusalem, covenant dissonance, the jealous God, did prophecy cease after the exile, Zech 9-14 in the passion-narratives, Malachi and Nehemiah, a covenant with Levi, should Christians tithe, God’s affections and divorce.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 505-516 (12)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 237-288 (52) 417-430 (14)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 25-27 (3) 34-37 (4) 271-273 (3) 273-280 (8) 280-282 (3)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 520-524 (5) 525-530 (6) 530-533 (4)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 575-599 (25)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 390-422 (33)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 406-412 (7)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 265-284 (20) 292-304 (13)
    • Maxwell Miller, J., Hayes, John H.: Az ókori Izrael és Júda története
  13. Visions of the End: The Prophetic Book of Daniel and Apocalyptic Literature

    The lecture commences with an introduction into the nature, characteristics and uniqueness of apocalyptic literature, with a specific focus on biblical apocalyptic. This is followed by a brief survey of the critical interpretation of the book of Daniel, questions of genre and unity and such problems of interpretation as the bilingualism of the book, the identity of the four kingdoms, vision of the seventy weeks and other historical questions. The kingdom of God, divine and human rule, the Messiah, God’s faithfulness and human faithfulness, the pride of humankind and the ultimate victory of God’s saints constitute the major theological themes. Further topics and questions to be discussed include: the prayer of Nabonidus, Daniel and Esther, Daniel’s stories as history, son of man, prophetic allusions, a messianic text, Dan 11 and history, the pride of kings, wisdom and understanding, Daniel and 1 Maccabees, the wise, a deterministic view of history, Daniel among the prophets, Daniel as intercessor and the book of Daniel and the book of Revelation.

    Reading:

    • Archer, Gleason L.: Az ószövetségi bevezetés vizsgálata, 453-481 (29)
    • Schultz, Samuel: Üzen az Ószövetség, 373-383 (11)
    • Buber, Martin: A próféták hite
    • Soggin, J. Alberto: Bevezetés az Ószövetségbe
    • Schmidt, Werner H.: Einführung in das Alte Testament, 289-296 (8)
    • Zenger, Erich: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 458-464 (7)
    • Eissfeldt, Otto: Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 693-718 (26)
    • LaSor, William Sanford, Hubbard, David Allan, Bush, Frederic William: Old testament Survey. The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 566-582 (17)
    • Pecsuk Otto: Bibliaismereti kézikönyv, 316-323 (8)
    • Rózsa Huba: Az Ószövetség keletkezése, 429-444 (16)
  14. Recapitulation

    By this stage the students should have read the following scholarly works, namely Martin Buber’s Der Glaube der Propheten [The Faith of the Prophets] and the remaining chapters, which were not assigned for reading in the first semester, from J. Maxwell Miller’s and John H. Hayes’s A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. The students are also expected to present their handwritten notes that they have prepared in the process of reading Martin Buber’s Der Glaube der Propheten [The Faith of the Prophets] and the handwritten notes that they have prepared while reading the books of the prophets. Furthermore, based on the knowledge accumulated from reading the abovementioned books, the students are expected to present an essay titled: The Prophet Hosea and the Love of God. The length of the essay ought not to be over two-thousand words, excluding footnotes. The essay may receive thirty points at the most.

Total estimated time

Classroom study

  • 2 hours/week (Course: 2 | Seminar: 0 | Practice: 0)
  • 28 hours/semester (Course: 28 | Seminar: 0 | Practice: 0)

Individual study

  • Time for studying course notes and bibliography: 40 hours/semester.
  • Time for further documentation in libraries, electronic platforms, or on the field: 20 hours/semester.
  • Time for preparing essays, papers, or documentation: 6 hours/semester.
  • Time for personal tutoring: 0 hours/semester.
  • Total individual study: 66 hours/semester.
  • Total estimated time: 94 hours/semester.

Examination

Attendance: The course relies significantly upon the material discussed in class. Therefore, attendance is significantly related to one’s success in the course. Reading: The student ought to read all the assigned readings for the class. If a student consistently appears to be unprepared the class participation grade will be adversely affected. The lecturer reserves the right to assign quizzes to those who obnoxiously refuse to prepare for upcoming classes. Cheating, plagiarizing, copying, etc. are not tolerated.

Bibliography

Book

Collection of studies