Vetus Testamentum

Resheph and Qeteb from Deut 32:24 are considered in modern scholarship as demons. This short paper argues this theory and points out a possible alternative explanation: literary paganism.

In studies on the composition of prophetic literature, the larger textual layers reinterpreting earlier texts, the so-called Fortschreibungen, received much attention. It is well-known that beside these larger literary elaborations prophetic books also contain shorter explanatory interpolations, often called glosses, which intend to clarify a particular imagery of the prophecy (e.g., Isa 9:14). A systematic reading of these short annotations has been neglected, however, in studying the formation of prophetic books. The present article reconsiders the Isaiah-Memoir from this perspective.

It is argued that the preposition in Prov 1:22b is employed as a dativus commodi, as opposed to earlier assumptions that it is a dativus ethicus. The employment of the preposition in Prov 1:22 as a dativus commodi in a construction with the verb, "to desire," implies an ironic criticism of the negative attitude of the "scoffers" towards Wisdom's call and of their revelling delight in their scoffing.

The aim of this study is, on the one side, to inquire into the meaning of the expression in Deut. viii 3b. Because this expression appears only once in the Old Testament, this study investigates the genitival construction in Num. xxx 13; Deut. xxiii 24; Jer. xvii 16, and Ps. lxxxix 35, and the expression in Num. xxx 3; Judg. xi 36; Isa. xlv 23; and lv 11. One may conclude that these expressions bear signs of a juridical language, with the connotation of `self commitment'. Accordingly, in Deut. viii 3b denotes the self commitment of YHWH.

Isa 8:16 is considered a key reference regarding the formation of the book of Isaiah and the role of prophetic disciples in this process. This article argues, however, that originally this verse had a more limited significance. The instruction to which v. 16 refers is to be identified with vv. 12-15 rather than an early ‘book’ of Isaiah. The expression ‘the instructed ones’ (of YHWH rather than the prophet) is applied to the prophet’s audience.

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